Carbon dioxide (CO2): Carbon dioxide occurs naturally in the atmosphere, is exhaled by humans and other animals and is used by plants in photosynthesis. Growing plants and the oceans act as carbon sinks, taking carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and storing the carbon. As plant material decomposes, the carbon is released back into the atmosphere, largely as carbon dioxide. Burning fossil fuels, land clearing and other activities of modern industrial society have caused the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to climb from about 280 parts per billion to 380 parts per billion, causing warming and other climate changes.
Covalent Bond: is a chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule
Geosequestration: Carbon Dioxide is captured, compressed and injected into deep geological formations.
IPCC: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
IGCC: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC): Established in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme to assess on a comprehensive, objective, open and transparent basis the scientific, technical and socio-economic information relevant to understanding the scientific basis of risk of human-induced climate change, its potential impacts and options for adaptation and mitigation. The IPCC does not carry out research nor does it monitor climate related data or other relevant parameters. It bases its assessment mainly on peer reviewed and published scientific/technical literature. Learn more...
Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC): A process where fossil fuel is not combusted but is reacted at high pressure and temperature to form a synthesis gas, which is further reacted with water, to produce carbon dioxide (which can be captured) and hydrogen (which is combusted for energy).
Kyoto Protocol:An international agreement which seeks to reduce annual greenhouse gas emissions by developed nations in its first commitment period, 2008-2012, to 5 per cent less than 1990 emissions. It seeks to achieve this by imposing mandatory emissions targets on developed nations that ratify the Protocol. Learn more...
PCC: Post-combustion capture. The capture of carbon dioxide (usually involving separation of carbon dioxide from other flue gases) after fossil fuel has been combusted.
Pre-combustion capture: The capture of carbon dioxide before the combustion of fuel. This could be done through Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle, where the fossil fuel is not combusted but reacted at high pressure and temperature to form a synthesis gas, which is further reacted with water, to produce carbon dioxide (which is captured) and hydrogen (which is combusted for energy).
Seismic: A method of exploring the underlying strata of the earth, in which shocks are created, the resulting vibrations providing geological information
Supercritical state: Carbon dioxide (or any substance) is said to be in a supercritical state when its temperature and pressure are above its critical point. The critical point is the highest temperature and pressure at which it can exist as a gas and liquid in equilibrium. In its supercritical state, a substance shows properties of both liquids and gases, expanding to fill its container like a gas, but with the density of a liquid. The critical point for carbon dioxide occurs at a pressure of 73.8 bar (73 atm) and a temperature of 31.1°C.
UNFCCC: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC): Sets an overall framework for intergovernmental efforts to tackle the challenge posed by climate change. The Convention, which entered into force in 1994, enjoys almost universal global membership, with 189 countries having ratified it. Learn more...
Van der Waals Forces: Weak, short-range electrostatic attractive forces between uncharged molecules, arising from the interaction of permanent or transient electric dipole moments.
Viscous Fingering: is the formation of patterns in a morphologically unstable interface between two fluids in a porous medium - see image